About 480 BC the Phoenicians founded Carthage. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their first African colony following the Punic Wars against the Carthaginians in 264–146 bce. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes. More acceptable were Aḥmad’s steps to integrate Arabic-speaking native Tunisians fully into the government, which had long been dominated by mamlūks (military slaves) and Turks. Tunisia’s security was directly threatened in 1835, when the Ottoman Empire deposed the ruling dynasty in Libya and reestablished direct Ottoman rule. Paperback; NOOK Book; Hardcover; Tunisia - History. The climate can be divided into two major areas, the north, influenced by the Mediterranean, and the south, influenced by the Saharan desert. Category:History of Tunisia | Military Wiki | Fandom. Tunisia’s geographic and historical legacy helped prepare it for the shocks it received in the 19th century as a land caught between an expanding Europe and a declining Ottoman Empire. 1 - 20 of 46 results. Berber, the earlier language of the Maghrib, survived in Tunisia in only a few pockets, mainly in the extreme south. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1881 and remained under French rule until March 1956 when it gained independence, followed by the promulgation of a new constitution on 1 June 1959. It was made during the reformist ministry of Khayr al-Dīn (1873–77), one of the most effective statesmen of the 19th-century Muslim world. This is a whole app is very easy to use. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Book Description. Piracy remains the chief purpose and main source of income of all these Turkish settlements along the Barbary coast. Temperatures are moderated by the sea, being less extreme at Sousse on the coast, for example, than at Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) inland. Throughout its recorded history, the physical features and environment of the land of Tunisia have remained fairly constant, although during ancient times more abundant forests grew in the north, and earlier in prehistory the Sahara to the south was not an arid desert. Saved from en.wikipedia.org. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on Omissions? Finally, from the 16th to the 19th century, the Ottomans brought their own blend of Asian and European traditions. However, enemies from within and European intrigues from without conspired to force him from office. The Tunisian Dorsale, or High Tell, a southwest-northeast–trending mountain range that is an extension of the Saharan Atlas (Atlas Saharien) of Algeria, tapers off in the direction of the Sharīk (Cape Bon) Peninsula in the northeast, south of the Gulf of Tunis. The temperatures are mild along the coast. A Brief History of Tunisia Muslim Conquest. This provoked an uprising in southern Tunisia during which France attacked and captured Sousse in July 1881, took Kairouan in October, and seized Gafsa and Gabès in November. Founded by the Arabs in the year 670, Kairouan in Arabic means ‘military camp’. Tunisia. Independence for Tunisia. Relief. During the 8th and 9th centuries BC, the Phoenicians became the first of the many civilizations to leave their mark on Tunisia. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Thereafter, the vulnerable beylik of Tunis found itself surrounded by two larger powers—France and the Ottoman Empire—both of which had designs on Tunisia. Drainage. As in other countries of this arid region, access to water is a major concern. pop. Following the decline of Rome, the region was ruled briefly by the Vandals and then the Byzantine Empire before being conquered by the Arabs in 647 ce. Tunisia’s most fertile soils are found in the well-watered intermontane valleys in the north, where rich sandy clay soils formed from alluvium or soils high in lime content cover the valley bottoms and plains. Africa Destinations. Rome prevailed in the mid-2nd century bce, razed Carthage, and ruled the region for the following 500 years. The humid coastal plain in the east, running between the Gulf of Hammamet and the Gulf of Gabes, where Tunisia’s thriving olive plantations are found, is the most agriculturally productive of these coarse-textured soil areas. Roman Africa, for example, was the most intensively Christianized portion of North Africa, and Ifrīqiyyah was later more quickly and more thoroughly Islamicized. Land. It can be argued that Tunisia’s location is strategic because … Ancient Origins articles related to Tunisia in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. Aḥmad Bey, who ruled from 1837 to 1855, was an avowed modernizer and reformer. However, throughout the centuries Tunisia has received various waves of immigration that have included Phoenicians, sub-Saharan Africans, Jews, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs; Muslim refugees from Sicily settled in Al-Sāḥil after their homeland was captured by the Normans in 1091. Tunisia is characterized by moderate relief. Is the northernmost point of Africa farther north than the southernmost point of Europe? It is important as a winter sanctuary for such birds as the greylag goose, coot, and wigeon. Prices. The population of Tunisia is essentially Arab Berber. Tunisia is situated in the warm temperate zone between latitudes 37° and 30° N. In the north the climate is Mediterranean, characterized by mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers with no marked intervening seasons. Brief History of Tunisia: Tunisia is the northern point of Africa. By 1574, Tunisia was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire, whose control of the region, always tenuous, had all but dissolved by the 19th century. With the help of Western advisers (mainly French), he created a modern army and navy and related industries. The Glory Days of Carthage. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. Most visited articles. This book examines the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on political, social, economic and cultural developments. Africa’s highest temperature, about 131 °F (55 °C), was recorded in Kebili, a town in central Tunisia. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French that they had no intention of colonizing Tunisia. Eugene Roe; Project maintenance. The fighting in Tunisia underlined both the strengths and weaknesses of the Western Alliance and the United States Army. Kairouan. See if your geographic knowledge points north or south in this journey through Africa. Though sympathetic to the need for reforms, Muḥammad was too weak either to control his own government or to keep the European powers at bay. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. Conscription was also introduced, to the great dismay of the peasantry. The Romans ruled and settled in North Africa until the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell and... From Arab Center to French Protectorate. List View List. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The extreme south is largely sandy desert, much of it part of the Great Eastern Erg of the Sahara. Add to Wishlist. Then from about 1100 BC the Phoeniciansfrom what is now Lebanon settled and traded in the area. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. During the 1990s the government sponsored the construction of a number of dams to control flooding, preserve runoff, and recharge the water table. The highest mountain, Mount Chambi (Al-Shaʿnabī), located near the centre of the Algerian border, rises to 5,066 feet (1,544 metres), while Mount Zaghwān (Zaghouan), about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Tunis, reaches 4,249 feet (1,295 metres). In the 7th century Arab conquerors converted the native Berber (Amazigh) population of North Africa to Islam. The final collapse of the Tunisian beylik came during the reign of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (1859–82). That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their … Kenneth Perkins' book traces the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Beach at Al-Marsā, on the Gulf of Tunis, northeastern Tunisia. Similarly, the capital, Tunis, blends ancient Arab souks and mosques and modern-style office buildings into one of the most handsome and lively cities in the region. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It was the Phoenicians that first founded Tunisia’s most famous city of Carthage, which would eventually rival Rome as the most dominant city on the Mediterranean Sea. This agreement, known as the Convention of Al-Marsa, was signed in 1883 and solidified French control over Tunisia. Tunisia. Like much of North Africa, Tunisia's history is one littered with conquests that completely changed the country's path. He did, in 1861, proclaim the first constitution (dustūr; also destour) in the Arabic-speaking world, but this step toward representative government was cut short by runaway debt, a problem exacerbated by the government’s practice of securing loans from European bankers at exorbitant rates. $5 - $10; $10 - $25; $25 - $50; Over $50; Formats. Yet, Tunisia proved to be as vulnerable economically as it was militarily. The history of early Tunisia and its indigenous inhabitants, the Berbers, is obscure prior to the founding of Carthage by seafaring Phoenicians from Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) in the 9th century BC .A great mercantile state developed at Carthage (near modern-day Tunis), which proceeded to dominate the western Mediterranean world. The scheme, however, had no chance of success and was soon abandoned. Tunisia is one of the … History First Peoples. At night, each locked himself in his room, but in the morning, life was always communal. Amounts are also highly irregular from one year to another, and irregularity increases southward toward the desert. By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for “new city”) dominated much of the western Mediterranean. The area was ruled by a succession of Islamic dynasties and empires until coming under French colonial rule in the late 19th century. Culture of Tunisia - Wikipedia In 1956, … Ḥusayn Bey even accepted the idea that Tunisian princes would rule the cities of Constantine and Oran. In time the Carthaginians built an empire in the Mediterranean. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. Comparable temperatures at Kairouan are 40 °F (4 °C) in January and 99 °F (37 °C) in August. After the death of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq, his successor, ʿAlī, was forced to introduce administrative, judicial, and financial reforms that the French government considered useful. The precipitation also greatly varies, as the north receives significantly more rainfall than the south. The amount of precipitation, all falling as rain, varies considerably from north to south. Tunisia was called IfrÄ«qiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. Carthage Must Be Destroyed:… by Richard Miles. Friday, January 14, 2011, became a new date and a specialchapter in the periodization of the history of Tunisia since independence,just like March 20, 1956 (Independence Day), or April 9, 1938.¹ This key1. Recovered for Spain in 1535, Tunisia is finally brought under Ottoman control in 1574. As a result, some 200,000 Spanish Muslims settled in the area of Tunis, in the Majardah valley, and on the Sharīk Peninsula in the north, bringing with them their urban culture and more advanced agricultural and irrigation techniques. Aḥmad abolished slavery and took other modernizing steps intended to bring Tunisia more in line with Europe, but he also exposed his country to Europe’s infinitely greater economic and political power. From the Phoenicians to the French, we've got, (nearly) all of them nailed. Harvests vary as a result, being poor in dry years. In the country’s most southerly regions, within the Sahara, even these seasonal streams are rare. Grid View Grid. From north to south, the cork oak forest of the Kroumirie Mountains, with its fern undergrowth sheltering wild boars, gives way to scrub and steppes covered with esparto grass and populated with small game and to the desert, where hunting is forbidden so as to preserve the remaining gazelles. This valley was once the granary of ancient Rome and has remained to this day the richest grain-producing region of Tunisia. We'll give it a try. List of beys of Tunis. Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, and spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. The final blow to Tunisia’s sovereignty came at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when Britain acquiesced to France’s control of Tunisia. In the dry south, moreover, they are often also saline because of excessive evaporation. Slowly this city became stronger. Kenneth Perkins's new edition of A History of Modern Tunisia carries the history of this country from 2004 to the present, with particular emphasis on the Tunisian revolution of 2011 - the first critical event of … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The next bey, Muḥammad (1855–59), tried to ignore Europe, but this was no longer possible. (Page of tag Tunisia) The Phoenicians' expanding regional power brought them to the attention of the Ancient Greeks, and late… . To the south of the Tunisian Dorsale lies a hilly region known as the Haute Steppe (High Steppes) in the west and the Basse Steppe (Low Steppes) in the east. The climate of the country, similar to the topography, is greatly varied. A small state with limited resources, Tunisia nonetheless managed to retain considerable autonomy within the framework of the larger empires that frequently ruled it from afar. In Tunisia, women can pass on their names and nationalities to their children. Tunisia, country of North Africa. This changes southward to semiarid conditions on the steppes and to desert in the far south. These have elevations ranging from about 600 to 1,500 feet (180 to 460 metres) and are crossed by secondary ranges trending north-south. Saharan influences give rise to the sirocco, a seasonal hot, blasting wind from the south that can have a serious drying effect on vegetation. Independence under the Neo-Destour Party (1956–2011), Factional tension, compromise, and a new constitution, Dissatisfaction with the political establishment and the election of Kais Saied, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Tunisia, Tunisia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Tunisia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Farther south, streams are intermittent and largely localized in the form of wadis, which are subject to seasonal flooding and terminate inland in chotts. March 20, 1956, is Independence Day, when Tunisia gained its independence fromFrance. The emerging Roman Empire was not happy with these events, and 128 years of Punic Wars ensued. By about 8,000 BC human beings lived in what is now Tunisia by hunting and gathering. After achieving independence in 1956, Tunisia pursued a progressive social agenda and sought to modernize its economy under two long-serving presidents, Habib Bourguiba and Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. Tunisia has a very unique location. The most famous people of the ancient world to mark the area of modern-day Tunisia were the Phoenicians, who settled here in the 1st millennium BCE and went on to found their legendary capital of Carthage. In 1830, at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. Explore. Travel Destinations. But before reaching this square of pure blue sky, it received, from a multitude of windows, all the smoke, the smells, and the gossip of our neighbours. Book Description. Tunisia to͞onē´zhə, tyo͞o– [key], Fr. After initially examining the years of French colonial rule from 1881 to 1956, when the Tunisians achieved independence, he describes the subsequent process of state-building, including the design of political and economic structures and the promotion of a social and cultural agenda. (For a discussion of political changes in Tunisia in 2011, see Jasmine Revolution.). It was a … The summer is hot and dry in the north, and the winter is mild and consists of frequent rains. However they came into conflict with Rome. Tunis itself was located near the site of the ancient city-state of Carthage. The Phoenicians marched into Tunisia around 1100 BC, establishing their capital, Carthage (just north of today’s Tunis), as the main power in the western Mediterranean by the 6th century. 278,252 Pages. Add new page. Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account? 11,274,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. His reforms negatively affected the already stagnant economy, which led to greater debt, higher taxes, and increased unrest in the countryside. Tunisia's geographical location has meant that many different peoples have entered and dominated the country. The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia. Other cities include Sfax (Ṣafāqis), Sousse (Sūsah), and Gabès (Qābis) on the fertile coast and Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) and El-Kef (Al-Kāf) in the arid interior. Ruins of the ancient baths at Carthage, Tunisia. This great ethnic diversity is still seen in the variety of Tunisian family names. After about 5,000 BC they began farming although they still used stone tools. According to Greek legend, Dido, a princess of Tyre, was the first outsider to settle among the native tribes of what is now Tunisia when she founded the city of Carthage in the 9th century bce. The history of Tunisia reveals this rich past where different successive Mediterranean cultures had a strong presence. Temperatures at Sousse average 44 °F (7 °C) in January and 89 °F (32 °C) in August. More easily controlled from within than any other Maghrib country, Tunisia was also more open to the influence of people and ideas from abroad. Tunisia is the smallest of the Maghrib states and consequently the most cohesive. History. Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, University of Tunis. On the political level the successful conclusion of the Tunisia Campaign left one Allied problem unsolved: factionalism among the French. Although the Arabs initially unified North Africa, by 1230 a separate Tunisian dynasty had been established by the Ḥafṣids. One name looms above all in Tunisia's history: Carthage. The most notable immigration was that of the Spanish Moors (Muslims), which began after the fall of Sevilla (Seville), Spain, as a result of the Reconquista in 1248 and which turned into a veritable exodus in the early 17th century. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. From that time until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, Tunisian rulers had to placate the larger powers while working to strengthen the state from within.