Manitoba (/ ˌ m æ n ɪ ˈ t oʊ b ə / ()) is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.It is one of the three prairie provinces (with Alberta and Saskatchewan) and is Canada's fifth-most populous province, with an estimated 1.379 million people.  Francophone teachers who were able to continue teaching the French language were largely aided by the fact that the trustees of several school boards were effectively francophone-controlled. Most Franco-Manitobans live in Winnipeg, while about one third live in the south of the province.  There were 108,455 Manitobans or 8.6 per cent of the population that reported to be bilingual in English and French, although the following figure includes Manitobans that speak French as a second language. Are There Mental Health Differences Between Francophone and Non-Francophone Populations in Manitoba? Francophones constituted the majority of the region's non-First Nations population until mid 19th century, when anglophones became the linguistic majority. However, as of 1812, European immigrants settled in the territory of Manitoba. The majority of Franco-Manitobans are bilingual in English and French, with only 1,485 respondents (0.1 per cent of Manitobans) in the 2016 census reporting they only had proficiency in the French language.  However, efforts to provide French language services have been undertaken since the province's first French language policy was instituted in 1989, with French language access to provincial services available in areas where numbers warrant it.. Louis Riel Day is a public holiday in the province. When Manitoba entered the Canadian federation in 1870, its population comprised an almost equal number of Anglophones and Francophones.  The resulting challenge caused significant tension between anglophones and Franco-Manitobans, with the Société franco-manitobaine offices firebombed in 1993. MPNP Promotes Francophone Immigration in Manitoba. However, the provincial government continued to move slowly in re-instituting bilingual programs, resulting in another Franco-Manitoban to use his own parking ticket to launch a legal challenge that all legislation from 1890 to 1979 passed only in English were unconstitutional. The linguistic rights of Franco-Manitobans was also furthered as a result of several decisions made by the Supreme Court of Canada during the 1980s and 1990s. The table which appears in Figure 18 contains statistics pertaining to 37 Francophone and Métis communities in Manitoba. Self-rated mental health was directly standardized to the combined weighted CCHS survey Manitoba population aged 12 years and older. Whilethe French language, with its history as an instrument of colonial domination,its present-day status as an international language, and its status as alanguage spoken by millions of people worldwide, cannot truly be considered tobe endangered, its status as a minority language in certain loca… French-speaking immigrants are increasingly becoming a larger proportion within OLMCs (25% in British Columbia in comparison to 5% in Manitoba, Statistics Canada 2006). Manitoba's livestock population in 2004 included 1.45 million cattle. In 2016 there were approximately 2,000 students attending the Université de Saint-Boniface. Franco-Manitobans (French: Franco-Manitobains) are French Canadians or Canadian francophones living in the province of Manitoba.  The AÉCFM provided financial assistance for prospective francophone teachers, and encouraged francophone teachers to continue providing French language instruction illicitly. In 2016, Manitoba’s population included 46,060 people with French as their first official language. Another supreme court decision in 1993 ruled that francophone minority were afforded the right to manage and control their own educational facilities. Thompson (population 13,678) is the largest city in the Northern Region of Manitoba and is situated along the Burntwood River, 761 kilometers (473 miles) north of Winnipeg.Originally founded in 1956 as a mining town, Thompson now primarily serves as the "Hub of the North", providing goods and services (e.g., healthcare, retail trade) to the surrounding communities. A number of francophone fur traders married à la façon du pays, wedding First Nations wives whose children eventually developed a unique Métis identity. Allophone is a term that describes anyone whose first language is not English, French or an Indigenous language (see Immigrant Languages in Canada). , The school board maintains 23 schools that either provides elementary education, secondary education, or, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, "Census 2016, focus on geography series - Manitoba - Official language minority community", "Focus on Geography Series, 2016 Census - Manitoba", "Infographic: The French Presence in Manitoba", "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Manitoba - Canada", "Profiles of francophone communities in Manitoba", "The Supreme Court of Canada declares all of Manitoba's legislative documents to be invalid because they were adopted in English only", "The Supreme Court of Canada confirms the right to minority control over French-language facilities", "Le festival Cinémental s'ouvre vendredi au CCFM", Francophone Affairs Secretariat official website, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Franco-Manitoban&oldid=992800367, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 04:26. Data for the regions include population of cities, towns, villages, rural municipalities, local government districts, and unorganized territories.  After the Thornton Act was passed, the Association d’éducation des Canadiens français du Manitoba (AÉCFM) was formed by the Roman Catholic clergy, serving as an shadow ministry of education for Franco-Manitobans.  The following section does not extend toward provincial government services. There are several Franco-Manitoban communities throughout Manitoba, although the majority are based in either the Winnipeg Capital Region or the Eastman Region. In the 2016 census40 525 (3.3 per cent of the population) indicated French as their mother tongue. Many also pioneered the Canadian Prairies in the late 18th century, founding the towns of Saint Boniface, Manitoba and in Alberta's Peace Country, including the region of Grande Prairie. During the next 60 years, the dev… Hui Chen, MSc. It is possible to conclude that 94% of the Manitoba population whose mother tongue is French is found either in the designated bilingual areas or very close by. Guarantees were therefore included in the provincial constitution to preserve this linguistic duality.  However, the first attempts by francophones to settle the area did not occur until the 1730s, with French explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye and his sons establishing a permanent presence in southern Manitoba.  The following act was passed in an effort to homogenize the province with English as its dominant language, after it received an influx of migrants from non-English speaking countries. Every year on French Canada’s biggest holiday, Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day, Francophones gather in La Broquerie and in Saint-Boniface to celebrate their French culture with concerts, sports and recreational activities, a parade and much more. The population data shown in this report are based on records of residents registered with Manitoba Health, Seniors and Active Living. 23 French-language educational institutions. In terms of population, Francophone immigration in both provinces is a recent phenomenon (arrival since 1996) and in a state of growth. In 2016, there were 1,130 immigrants and non-permanent The most common ethnic origins in Manitoba are: English: 22.1%; German: 19.1%; Scottish: 18.5%; Canadian: 18.2%; Ukrainian: 14.7%; Irish: 13.4%; French: 13.1%; North American Indian: 10.6%; Polish: 7.3%; Metis: 6.4%; Dutch: 4.9%; Russian: 4.0%; Icelandic: 2.7%; Manitoba has the largest Icelandic population outside of Iceland, with about 35% living in Manitoba. Eastern and Northern Ontario have large populations of francophones in communities such as Ottawa, Cornwall, Hawkesbury, Sudbury, Welland, Timmins and Windsor. Nearly 5,400 students attend French-language schools (2015-2016). Read more Population distribution of Manitoba, Canada, in 2016, by rural/urban type Contents: Introduction --Section 1.  French was reintroduced as an official language of the public education system in 1970, with Franco-Manitobans given the right to control and manage school boards independent from their anglophone peers in 1993. Only one major group of more than 900 people is not included and that is the French-speaking population of the Brandon area. Janelle de Rocquigny, …  French would formally be reestablished as an official language of the provincial education system in 1970. Kari-Lynne McGowan, MSc. So, the population of Manitoba in 2019 according to estimates = 1.31632 Million.  However within the next ten years, francophones became a demographic minority in Manitoba as settlers from Ontario moved into the province in large numbers. The first francophones to enter the region were fur traders during the late 17th century, with the first French settlers arriving in the subsequent century. Nearly 9% of the population (108,460 people) can speak both English and French; French is the mother tongue of 3.4% of the population (43,207 people) French is the first official language of 3.2% of the population (40,973 people) Education Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada, Profiles of the Francophone and Acadian Communities of Canada, Association of Manitoba Bilingual Municipalities, Nearly 9% of the population (108,460 people) can speak both English and French, French is the mother tongue of 3.4% of the population (43,207 people), French is the first official language of 3.2% of the population (40,973 people), 57,773 students are enrolled in core French (32% of eligible enrollment) (2015-2016), 24,381 students are enrolled in French immersion (14% of eligible enrolment) (2015-2016).  The case served as a basis for a successful constitutional challenge, where the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the 1890 act that made English the only language of the legislature, and judiciary, was unconstitutional, as it conflicted with section 23 of the Manitoba Act. [note 1], There is presently no independent publicly-funded francophone college or university in the province, although the publicly-funded University of Manitoba operates an affiliated university, the Université de Saint-Boniface as a francophone institution. , In 1869, the government of Canada dispatched surveyors to survey Rupert's Land, with the transfer of the territory expected to occur in the next year. Ottawa. , In the 2016 census, 148,810 Manitobans reported having partial or full French ancestry. There are around 70 distinct Indigenous languages in Canada.  Among French-speaking migrants that settled into Manitoba, the approximately 57 per cent originated from Africa, while 28 per cent originated from Europe. Though Manitoba has one of the largest francophone populations in Canada, the recent years have witnessed a plunge in their population size. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the number of people that reported French as a mother tongue in Manitoba was 46,055 (or 3.7 per cent of the population), making it the most common mother tongue in the province after English, German, and Tagalog. In 2020, there were 119,673 females 65 years of age and over in Manitoba. Small numbers of pheasants, goats, rabbits, wild boars, ostriches, bison, and emus and rheas are also kept as livestock. Approximately 58 per cent of all francophones reside in the Winnipeg Capital Region, while 22 per cent reside in Eastman Region. Over 2,000 students attend the Université de Saint-Boniface, the only French-language university in Western Canada (2015-2016). In 2016, the provincial government adopted the, Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey. It has been seen that the population of Manitoba in the last 5 years from 2014-18 has increased by 0.0286 Million.  Cinémental is an annual French-language film festival, staged at the Centre culturel Franco-Manitobain in Winnipeg. The community is having considerable success attracting Francophone immigrants. , The first French speakers to visit Manitoba occurred in the 1660s, with French fur traders and explorers exploring the region around Hudson's Bay.  Approximately 15 per cent of francophones in Manitoba were born elsewhere in Canada, whereas the remaining francophones that reside in the province were born outside the country. More than half of Manitoban Francophones live in Winnipeg. The Francophone Affairs Secretariat serves as the main liaison between the provincial government and the Franco-Manitoban community.  During the 1970s, the provincial government established the Bureau de l’Éducation française, and the office of the Deputy Minister of French Education to oversee French language education. Languages arenonmaterial treasures to be protected. Various actions undertaken by UNESCO topreserve linguistic diversity around the world (NOTE1)are evidence of this organization’s adherence to this principle.  Approximately 90 per cent of all Franco-Manitobans live within an hour's drive from Winnipeg. French language education rights for minority francophone populations in Canada is guaranteed under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, in addition to section 23 of the Manitoba Act. , In 1871, there were about 5,500 francophones in the province almost all of whom were Métis, and comprised more than half of the province's population. Issued also in French under title: Portrait des minorités de langue officielle au Canada, les francophones du Manitoba.  The majority of Franco-Manitobans are bilingual in English and French, with only 1,485 respondents (0.1 per cent of Manitobans) in the 2016 census reporting they only had proficiency in the French language. The United States became much more attractive for French Canadians than Manitoba or the North-West Territories. Afin de refléter de façon objective la vitalité de la population francophone et métisse du Manitoba, j’ai tenté de mettre sur un tableau toute une série de renseignements reçus d’organisations et de groupes francophones et métis. In 1925, the Franco-Manitoban community founded Le Cercle Molière. Released March 13 2007 and Statistics Canada Catalogue no. , There also exists francophone communities outside those regions, including Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes, St. Claude, Sainte Rose du Lac, and St. Additionally, many school inspectors that were sent to enforce the Thornton Act ignored infractions by francophone teachers; as they often relied on the AÉCFM to support their positions as inspectors. Definitions of Manitoba's French-speaking population --Section 2. It is the oldest French-language theatre organization in Canada. Francophones established a number of communities south of Winnipeg; Germans settled in south-central Manitoba; and a sizable Icelandic settlement developed around Gimli, on the shores of Lake Winnipeg. This data is an unofficial version of the materials, made … At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Hudson's Bay Companywas still developing the territories of Western Canada, by virtue of its charter. Statistical testing, using bootstrapping, was conducted to determine differences in the RRs between the Repository and survey study populations. The hog population that year was 2.85 million and sheep and lambs totaled 82,000.  The Canadian government eventually consented to the terms, with Manitoba formally made a province of confederation in the Manitoba Act in 1870, with English and French made the province's official language. However, the provincial government moved to revoke the linguistic rights accorded to francophones late 19th and early 20th centuries. Manitoba; Churchill - Town; Source: Statistics Canada Catalogue no. The provisional government provided a list of terms for the colony's entry into Canadian Confederation, including land provisions for the Métis, and linguistic and religious rights for its francophone Catholic population.  Use of the French language to teach other subjects was introduced in 1967, with teachers permitted to use the language for half of the school day. In 1993, Franco-Manitobans regained control of their schools. In 1979, the Supreme Court of Canada restored the bilingualism of Manitoba’s laws and courts.  The decision effectively made the province a bilingual province again. Note, many of these communities have other bordering communities such as Indian reserves and local urban districts (LUDs) by the same name - these sub-communities are listed along with the largest community of that name (i.e. The same year, it eliminated the funding that it provided to denominational schools and prohibited the teaching of French in public schools. Overall, Francophone children were more likely to be evaluated by their kindergarten teacher as “not ready for school” than non-Francophone children. 98-316-XWE. Over time, these villages welcomed anglophone populations and have become areas where two languages and cultures live together.  Four out of five francophones in the province residing in either the Winnipeg Capital Region, and Eastman Region. There were 108,455 Manitobans or 8.6 per c… The 17 bilingual municipalities all share the same feature, that of consisting, from the very beginning, of an almost exclusively francophone population.  In 1890, the provincial government moved to remove the linguistic rights of francophones, with the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba passing an Act that made the English language the sole official language of the province. Francophones in Manitoba, it also looks at other aspects of life, including education. , Nearly three quarters of all Franco-Manitobans (74 per cent of the population) were born in the province. In 2011, close to 10 million people reported being able to conduct a conversation in French, compared with less than 9.6 million in 2006.Footnote 5However, the proportion of those being able to speak French declined slightly to 30.1% in 2011, from 30.7% five years earlier. are Francophones (French as their mother tongue) and 80,000 speak French. Official languages in Canada: Fact or myth? The set of measures taken by designated public bodies to ensure that French language services are evident, readily available, easily accessible, and publicized, and that the quality of these services is comparable to that of services offered in English. , Francophone communities in Manitoba is concentrated in southern Manitoba, along corridors that follows the Seine and Red River of the North towards Lake Manitoba. In 2016, the Francophone Community Enhancement and Support Act was passed with unanimous support, and no vocal opposition from the anglophone majority of Manitoba, signalling the acceptance of francophone linguistic rights within the province. The Festival du Voyageur is the biggest Francophone winter festival in Western Canada. , The official language of the judiciary and legislature of Manitoba is English and French, under section 23 of the Manitoba Act. 92-591-XWE. These guarantees protected the bilingualism of laws, courts and denominational schools. There are 16 designated bilingual areas in the province: Winnipeg and 15 rural areas.  Conversely, the Société de la francophonie manitobaine serves as the main advocacy and lobby group for Franco-Manitobans. Manitoba is one of Canada's 10 provinces. ). FRANCOPHONES IN MANITOBA La santé et l’utilisation des services de santé des francophones du Manitoba June 2012 Manitoba Centre for Health Policy Department of Community Health Sciences Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Authors: Mariette Chartier, R.N., Ph.D. Gregory S Finlayson, BA, PhD(C) Heather J. Characteristics. , An issue regarding the province's official language emerged during the late 1970s, when a francophone Métis received a parking ticket written only in English. Laurent. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the number of people that reported French as a mother tongue in Manitoba was 46,055 (or 3.7 per cent of the population), making it the most common mother tongue in the province after English, German, and Tagalog.